We are witnessing a revolutionary technological era in terms of connectivity, as if up to poco long ago nobody knew what the new 5G network standard was, now this word is on everyone's lips, also because of the "conspiracy theorists" of the case who see 5G as the main actor in the Coronavirus Covid-19 pandemic. That said, with the advent of Android 11 there will be many new icons inserted in the system, many of which will serve to identify the connection status of our smartphone, which could be in a position to show us signals such as 5Ge, 5G and 5G +. But what do these identifications mean, what is the difference between the three?
A fixed point on 5G is the connection speed with which it manages to perform and relative stability, allowing the full exploitation of applications in the IoT (Internet of Things) environment. But as you have guessed from the first lines of the article, the 5G network is not unique in that different technologies are developed behind it, just like for the 4G network which includes different types, such as 4G +, LTE, LTE-A, LTE + etc ..
In the case of 5G connectivity, Android will divide it into three groups: 5Ge, 5G and 5G +. Their differences are basically these: maximum speed, range and bands (frequency) used.
The 5Ge network does not actually identify itself as a pure 5G, as it does not take advantage of the new connection technology but is rather an evolution of the 4G LTE Advance standard, a network currently used by AT&T in the United States.
5Ge, 5G and 5G +: let's clarify the new network connectivity
The 5Ge connection is none other than the best known 4G LTE Advance Pro, a connection that offers Carrier Aggregation, a technology that allows you to combine at least 3 bands, 4 × 4 MIMO modulation and QAM of 256 satellites (256-QAM). A network capable of handling speeds up to 375 Mbps but still under the 4G standard. Other given names are: 4G LTE-A Pro, 4.5G Pro, 4.9G and Pre-5G.
The first true 5G network that Android will identify is also known as 5G sub-6GHz, a trade name for all those connections that operate below the 6 GHz band. When operating at medium frequencies, its coverage is very wide, making it perfect for carry the signal to remote locations, but nevertheless its speed is not much higher than that offered by 5Ge. The implementation of this technology is simple both in economic and structural terms as it can use many infrastructures from current 4G LTE networks.
In addition, the 5G connection also has another advantage, namely that it will return to use some frequencies reserved for inactive technologies.
We finally came to the 5G + standard, also known as the mmWave network. This is a connection that operates at ultra-high frequencies, between 24 and 100 GHz. Many operators assure that it will have speeds as fast as optical fiber.
The speed that can reach this super network is 100 Gbps, but in this case there are several obstacles for its implementation: the first in terms of cost as new infrastructures are needed and secondly the fact that coverage is very limited, depending on many antennas per single session.
5G + can barely go over 200 meters without loss of performance, as long as it doesn't have walls around it, as it is unable to pass through them. Its maximum range is around 1km (unobstructed), but the performance loss is noticeable.
These limitations make it an ideal network for open spaces such as a square or a shopping mall. It is also ideal for private networks, as its small range prevents someone from easily intercepting it.